Which subspecialty of physiology deals with the study of functions of the kidneys

Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system which include illnesses involving the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles. The study of the structure, functioning and diseases of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. A registered nurse who through advanced training is qualified to assume some of the duties and responsibilities formerly assumed only by a physician. The branch of medicine concerned with the care of women during pregnancy and the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system.

Focuses on the relationships among the health of workers, the ability to perform work, the arrangements of work, and the physical and chemical environments of the workplace.


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The development of adaptive skills, increased performance capacity, and those factors that may impede or restrict ability to function. Surgery for correction of deformities and treatment of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and related structures. Diagnosis and treatment of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and related structures.

The branch of medicine concerned with study of disease, especially its structure and its functional effect on the body. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels of infants, children and adolescents. The diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the internal glands such as the thyroid and adrenal glands of infants, children and adolescents. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the digestive system including the stomach, intestines, colon, liver, gallbladder and the pancreas of infants, children, and adolescents.

Diagnosis of acute and chronic infections, which may or may not be contagious of infants, children, and adolescents. The study of the structure, functioning and diseases of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves in infants, children, and adolescents.

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Diagnosis and treatment of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and related structures of infants, children, and adolescents. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lungs and other chest tissues of infants, children, and adolescents. Surgery dealing with a variety of problems, including disorders of the stomach, small intestine and colon as well as the liver, gallbladder and pancreas, and a wide variety of cancers in infants, children, and adolescents.

A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes and the genital tract in the male. Treatment of disease by physical agents such as heat, cold, light, electricity, manipulation or the use of mechanical devices for the restoration of physiologic function. The evaluation and treatment of any person by the employment of the effective properties of physical measures, the performance of tests and measurements as an aid to evaluation.

Surgery concerned with the repair or restoration of defective or missing structures, frequently involving the transference of tissue from a part or person to another part or person.

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A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the respiratory system. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree. The discipline of pediatric nephrology has been and continues to be engaged in research studies on infections of the lower urinary tract, of the renal parenchyma and of their relation to obstruction and reflux.

However, several U. Another effective means of collaboration to pursue these research topics occurred between pediatric urologists and nephrologists. Because adult nephrologists were becoming involved in renal replacement therapy, it was deemed necessary to certify pediatricians who could care for uremic children.

As well, because there existed a scientific basis for the discipline in pediatrics, a Sub-Board was appropriate. Holliday, C. The first certification examination was given in and every 3 years since. While no European Board of Pediatric Nephrology has been established, this may occur as the European Union further develops.

The American Academy of Pediatrics developed an active section in pediatric nephrology, which chooses senior pediatric nephrologists who have made major contributions to the field as recipients of an annual Henry Barnett award. Since the early s, pediatric nephrology research has moved from descriptive studies to a more mechanistic approach with the use of biochemical, molecular biologic, and cell biologic approaches 52 , As mentioned, a dominant theme in pediatric nephrology has remained growth and the best means to optimize the growth of children with chronic renal disease 54 , The use of hormones, reversal of acidosis, improvement in nutritional intake, intensified dialysis, and predialytic transplantation have all been advocated to reverse growth failure Fundamental research in pediatric nephrology has received considerable national recognition.

Since , 13 recipients of the E. Mead Johnson Award in Pediatric Research have been active in renal-related research. In , shortly after the description of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, it was recognized that this form of therapy would be of particular value in children It has been widely used in children since Because of the small size of blood vessels required for vascular access, peritoneal dialysis was an appealing option in smaller children.

In larger children this form of therapy would permit more consistent school attendance. At present this technique and modifications made to improve this method are more widely used in children than in adults. Aside from bacterial peritonitis from catheter and tunnel contamination as a side effect, this method offers the child and family greater freedom. This technique has led to numerous clinical research studies.

Because National Institutes of Health study sections have little pediatric expertise, it became necessary for the ASPN to lobby for more pediatric nephrology representation and to emphasize areas of important research focus. This public policy function of the ASPN has expanded over the past 20 years. An increasing number of requests for proposals have covered topics relevant to pediatric nephrology and have resulted in substantial extramural support for these areas.

Among other aspects, it demonstrates the spirit of cooperation prevalent in the discipline as well as the need to vigorously campaign for extramural funding to examine the relevant questions in the field. This same spirit has permitted the development of several multicenter networks aimed at enhancing research activities and improving the quality of patient care through prospective studies.

These groups have published extensively and involve far more patients in clinical and medication trials than possible from single center studies. After meetings in , a publications sub-committee of IPNA determined that a new pediatric nephrology journal should be established to serve the pediatric nephrologists of the world.

Frontiers | Adhesion GPCRs in Kidney Development and Disease | Cell and Developmental Biology

With Sir Cyril Chantler London and Alan Robson New Orleans as its founding editors, it is now in its 15th year and receives more than manuscripts annually. This journal publishes peer reviewed original articles and brief reports in clinical pediatric nephrology and basic science, as well as invited reviews on a variety of topics, and several other features, including rapid publications, clinical quizzes, letters to the editors.

The Journal has an American and European Editor and manuscripts are always reviewed on both continents. As the field of pediatric nephrology enters the new century, the research portfolio of the discipline is richer.


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Numerous groups are investigating the development of the renal vascular system, the ontogeny of the renin-angiotensin and aldosterone system, the mechanisms of cell recovery from hypoxic injury, transcription factors important in apoptosis and renal cell differentiation, and the elucidation of gene abnormalities in a variety of hereditary renal disorders including Bartter syndrome, Liddle syndrome, cystinosis, pseudohypoaldosteronism, polycystic renal disease, and other conditions A large European multination consortium has been particularly successful in discovering mutant genes in hereditary renal disease.

The role of molecular mechanisms is being examined as a basis for glomerular injury The field of pediatric nephrology has come a long distance from its status 50 years ago, of which Robert E. Methods such as organ culture, cell signaling, in situ hybridization, transgenic and knockout mouse models, positional cloning, and elucidation of the human genome have begun to close this abyss.

The knowledge base of pediatric nephrology continues to expand and to support strong improvements in patient care. However, equally as important, the world's pediatric nephrologists are bound together through the IPNA and its broad-ranging programs of support in education and publication.

See also the chapter on John F.


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Howland by W. Louis , pp. Cone Jr. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 1— J Clin Invest 1 : — Pediatr 19 : — Am J Dis Child 11 : — Darrow DC, Yannet H The changes in the distribution of body water accompanying increase decrease in extracellular electrolyte. J Clin Invest 14 : — Henoch EH Nephritis. Lyttle JD Pediatric urology. McMillan, New York, pp — Langstein L Diseases of the urinary apparatus. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 12— Appleton, New York, pp — Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 22— Lucas RC On a form of late rickets associated with albuminuria, rickets of adolescents.

Lancet 1 : — McMillan, New York, pp 1— Acta Paediatr 20 suppl 1 : 1— WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1— Liberman E Clinical Pediatric Nephrology. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 1— Pediatr Clin North Am 11 : — Pediatrics 27 : — J Pediatr 58 : — J Pediatr 76 : — Pediatrics 45 : — Pediatrics 31 : — Farnsworth EB Metabolic changes associated with administration of adrenocostricotropin in the nephrotic syndrome.

Introduction to Renal

Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 74 : 60— Two physiologic observation on discreet kidney functions plasma volume. J Clin Invest 30 : — Riley CM Nephrotic syndrome: Effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Pediatrics 7 : — JAMA : — Pediatrics 10 : — Habib R Classification anatomique des nephropathies glomerulaires.

Padiat Fortbildk Praxis Karger 28 : 3— Laboratory diagnosis of progressive glomerulonephritis. N Engl J Med : — J Pediatr 67 : — Berger J IgA glomerular deposits in renal disease.

The Development of Pediatric Nephrology

Transplant Prac 1 : — J Pediatr 82 : — Proc Soc Exp Biol Med : — J Clin Invest 33 : 91— J Pediatr 75 : — J Pediatr 42 : — J Clin Invest 42 : — J Pediatr 41 : — Pediatrics 15 : — Vernier RL Current concepts of renal development. Am J Surg : — Ann Surg : — J Pediatr 81 : — Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, pp 3— Chan JCM Pediatric nephrology. Pediatr Clin North Am 23 : — Fine RN Pediatric nephrology,. Pediatr Clin North Am 29 4 : — Siegler RL The hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am 42 : — Kidney Int 21 : 65— Pediatr Nephrol 7 : — Pediatr Nephrol 9 : — Pediatr Nephrol 14 : — Broyer M Growth in children with renal insufficiency.

Pediatr Clin North Am 29 : — Kashtan CE Alport syndrome; phenolypic heterogenity of progressive hereditary nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 12 : — Chevalier RL Molecular cellular pathophysiology of obstructive nephropathy. Pediatr Nephrol 13 : — Ichikawa I A bridge over troubled water…mixed water electrolyte disorders. Download references. The author appreciates the comments and recent manuscripts of Dr. Holliday, the reflections of W. Segar, C. West, I. Greifer, B.